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生态环境部关负责人就《长江流域总磷污染控制方案编制指南》答记者问

2022-08-25 14:30:00来源:生态环境部 阅读量:1832

导读:日前,生态环境部印发《长江流域总磷污染控制方案编制指南》,明确总磷污染控制方案主要包括总则、成效和问题、总磷污染控制目标、主要任务、主要任务清单及进度安排、保障措施等六方面,以加快长江流域生态环境保护。
  近日,生态环境部印发了《长江流域总磷污染控制方案编制指南》(以下简称《编制指南》),生态环境部水生态环境司有关负责人就《编制指南》有关问题回答了记者的提问。
 
  问:为什么要出台《编制指南》?
 
  答:党中央、国务院高度重视长江流域生态环境保护工作。习近平总书记先后三次亲自主持召开全面推动长江经济带发展座谈会,强调要把修复长江生态环境摆在压倒性位置,共抓大保护,不搞大开发。近年来,总磷已经成为长江流域首要污染物。“十三五”时期,各地虽然开展了一系列总磷污染控制工作,但“三磷”(磷矿、磷化工企业、磷石膏库)污染问题未从根本解决,长江干流多处出现总磷局部高值,不少断面汛期污染强度较高,流域总磷污染控制依然任重道远。
 
  2021年3月1日,《中华人民共和国长江保护法》正式实施,要求长江流域省级人民政府制定本行政区域的总磷污染控制方案,并组织实施。为贯彻落实《中华人民共和国长江保护法》,指导长江流域各省份制定实施本行政区域总磷污染控制方案,生态环境部在深入开展调研、广泛征求意见的基础上,编制印发《长江流域总磷污染控制方案编制指南》,对方案编制原则、范围与时限、总磷污染控制目标和主要任务等作了进一步明确细化,指导各地因地制宜推进总磷污染控制工作,推动长江流域水生态环境持续改善。
 
  问:总磷污染控制方案的编制原则是什么?
 
  答:一是坚持问题导向。坚持以水生态环境质量改善为核心,精准识别流域总磷污染问题及症结所在,综合考虑各地自然条件、工作基础和社会经济发展水平差异,因地制宜提出总磷污染控制目标及实现路径。二是坚持系统治理。方案编制要与“十四五”重点流域水生态环境保护规划相衔接,将总磷污染控制与“三磷”综合整治、农业面源污染治理与监督指导、入河排污口监督管理等工作系统推进,发挥协同增效作用。三是坚持责任明晰。明确责任分工、注重协调联动,将目标和任务落实到责任单位,压实相关地方、部门和企业总磷污染防治责任,确保总磷污染控制可监测、可统计、可考核。
 
  问:总磷污染控制方案应包括哪些主要内容?
 
  答:总磷污染控制方案主要包括总则、成效和问题、总磷污染控制目标、主要任务、主要任务清单及进度安排、保障措施等六方面。一是确立了各省份总磷污染控制方案的编制原则,强调问题导向、系统治理和责任明晰;二是明确了方案的主要内容,要求在全面总结“十三五”总磷污染控制成效与经验的基础上,系统分析行政区域内总磷污染问题及成因,结合水质改善需求和减排潜力,科学确定总磷污染控制目标,提出主要任务及保障措施,做好任务分解和分年度进度安排;三是提出了总磷污染控制实现路径,包括工业污染治理、面源污染治理、生活污染治理、流域生态保护及内源污染治理、入河排污口排查整治等方面,注重提炼总磷污染控制重点工程并持续推进,对重点项目清单给出了具体要求。
 
  问:总磷污染控制目标如何确定?
 
  答:《编制指南》要求,总磷污染控制目标要以改善水生态环境质量为核心,充分衔接“十四五”重点流域水生态环境保护规划、农业农村污染治理攻坚战行动方案(2021—2025年)及“十四五”土壤、地下水和农村生态环境保护规划目标任务,结合区域“三线一单”生态环境分区管控要求,依据可监测、可统计、可考核的原则合理确定。
 
  各地应在“十四五”国控断面水质目标基础上,结合总磷本底值及上游入境断面总磷浓度,进一步细化分解总磷水质控制目标,依据实际需求制定省控、市控、县控断面总磷水质目标。总磷减排目标需充分考虑各地水质和水生态安全需求,在行政区域内工业、农业、生活各类污染减排潜力测算基础上,扣除总磷预期新增排放量后统筹确定。
 
  问:总磷污染控制有哪些可行的实现路径?
 
  答:《编制指南》结合“十三五”总磷污染控制经验及目前存在问题,聚焦“三磷”污染治理、农业面源治理与监督指导和入河排污口监督管理等总磷污染控制重点领域,提出了磷矿和磷化工产业升级、磷石膏库生态修复和综合利用、农副食品加工等重点行业污染深度治理及回用、工业园区管网建设改造、化肥农药减量增效、初期雨水收集处理、汛期污染强度管理、城镇及农村生活污水收集及处理能力建设、人工湿地水质净化工程建设、环保清淤等内源污染治理、入河排污口排查整治等总磷污染控制路径,指导各地综合运用工程、政策、技术等措施,确保完成总磷污染控制目标任务。
 
  问:我国各地情况不同,地方在制定总磷污染控制方案时,如何做到因地制宜?
 
  答:《编制指南》明确要求,总磷污染控制方案应坚持问题导向和目标导向,系统分析行政区域内总磷污染状况、污染源情况,识别重点问题,深入分析原因,立足各地发展实际,结合水生态环境质量改善需求和减排潜力,因地制宜确定总磷污染控制目标及实现路径,不搞一刀切,不搞形式主义,既尽力而为,又量力而行,制定科学合理的总磷污染控制方案。
 
  编辑 | 尚玉
 
  原标题:生态环境部水生态环境司有关负责人就《长江流域总磷污染控制方案编制指南》答记者问

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