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北京市水生态环境质量监测与评价工作介绍

2022-08-25 13:28:51来源:北京市生态环境局宣教处 阅读量:2361

导读:监测与评价结果显示,全市水生态环境质量总体良好,全市水生生物物种丰富。下一步,责任部门将继续做好水生态环境质量监测与评价,掌握水生态环境质量长期变化趋势,增强三水统筹的技术支撑能力,推动流域水生态环境质量的系统保护。
  为全力支撑“水资源、水环境、水生态”三水统筹,深入打好碧水保卫战,推进北京市水生态环境质量持续改善,实现从“清澈见底”向“鱼翔浅底”转变,在北京市生态环境局的组织指导下,北京市生态环境监测中心开展了全市范围的水生态环境质量监测与评价工作,现将相关工作给大家做一个介绍。
 
  一、水生态环境质量监测工作开展情况
 
  水生态环境质量监测有四大亮点:
 
  一是“时间跨度大”。自上世纪80年代起,原北京市环境保护监测中心在全市重点湖库、河段持续开展浮游生物、底栖动物等水生生物监测,打下了深厚的工作基础,积累了丰富的工作经验;在此基础上,2020年-2021年,北京市生态环境监测中心在全市范围继续开展了水生态环境质量监测与评价工作,较为全面的摸底调查监测;2022年起,全市水生态环境质量监测列入常态化业务工作中,定期开展调查监测。
 
  二是“监测范围广”。本次水生态环境质量调查监测点位充分衔接本市地表水环境监测网络,遵循科学性、延续性、全面性、代表性等原则,全面覆盖了全市五大水系、山区平原、常年有水河湖库和16个行政区域,监测结果代表性较好。
 
  三是“指标覆盖全”。 本次水生态环境质量调查监测指标包括理化指标、水生生物指标和生境指标,监测指标体系较为全面,监测结果更加完整。其中,理化指标包括水温、溶解氧、氨氮、总磷、化学需氧量、高锰酸盐指数等指标,生物指标包括水中浮游植物、浮游动物、底栖动物、鱼类等类群,生境则是对水生生物生活繁衍的栖息地特征开展监测。
 
  四是“技术手段多”。本次水生态环境质量调查监测既包括了传统的手工采样和实验室显微镜分析,也包括了先进的环境DNA技术(简称eDNA)和遥感监测技术等,多手段发力、多维度评价,共同应用于全市水生态环境质量监测与评价工作,监测结果科学客观。
 
  二、水生态环境质量监测与评价依据
 
  基于调查监测结果,本次水生态环境质量评价工作有以下特点:
 
  一是全面科学客观的评价水生态环境质量。依据国家《河流水生态环境质量监测与评价技术指南》、《湖库水生态环境质量监测与评价技术指南》,以水生态系统完整性为重点,涵盖理化、水生生物和生境等指标,兼顾流域与区域、水里与岸上、宏观与微观,进行综合评价。
 
  二是突出水生生物重要性。评价方法在现有理化指标的基础上进一步突出了水生生物的重要性。水生生物是水生态系统的重要组成部分,它们的生存状况受到水质、生境等因素的影响,因此,其完整性可以进一步反映水体清洁程度及生态系统稳定程度。
 
  三是综合考虑水质和生境。良好的水质和自然的生境是水生态系统的基础条件。评价方法在考虑理化指标浓度达标的同时增加了水质稳定性要求;在生境方面既监测具体河段栖境状况,也关注流域整体生境连续性。
 
  三、水生态环境质量监测与评价结果
 
  监测与评价结果显示,全市水生态环境质量总体良好,全市水生生物物种丰富。
 
  理化指标监测显示,全市水环境质量改善明显。2021年Ⅰ-Ⅲ类水质河长占监测总长度的75.2%,同比增加11.4个百分点;IV-V类水质河长占监测总长度的24.8%;无劣V类河流。2022年上半年,37个国考断面中,Ⅰ-Ⅲ类的水质断面26个,占70.3%,同比增加16.2个百分点,无劣Ⅴ类断面。
 
  生境监测显示,全市不同区域整体稳定向好。全市不同区域水生态环境的生境整体处于“中等”至“良好”水平,其中,山区河流生境状况明显优于平原区河流,山区生境整体评价为“良好”,平原区河流整体评价为“中等”;湖泊生境整体评价为“中等”;水库生境整体评价为“良好”。
 
  水生生物监测显示,全市水生生物物种丰富。全市累计监测到浮游植物134种,浮游动物231种,底栖动物284种,鱼类41种,麦穗鱼和高体鳑鲏(pangpi)等土著鱼广泛存在。同时,还监测到宽鳍鱲(lie)、黑鳍鳈(quan)、马口鱼和中华多刺鱼等多种北京市二级水生野生保护动物。此外,共发现了37种EPT物种,在全市五大水系中均有分布。EPT物种被公认为清洁水体指示物种,是指底栖动物群落中,蜉蝣目、襀(jì)翅目和毛翅目这三类水生昆虫的统称,它们多数喜好在清澈洁净的水流中生活,对水质非常敏感,可以看作水系清洁的“风向标”。
 
  经综合评价,全市水生态环境质量总体良好。全市五大水系中潮白河水系水生态环境质量最好,其次为永定河水系、大清河水系、蓟运河水系和北运河水系。
 
  从河流来看,55.7%的河流水生态环境质量状况为优良,其中,山区河流水质清洁、自然岸线保有率高、生态本底较好,水生态环境质量达到“优秀”或“良好”,如怀柔区怀九河、延庆区新华营河、房山区拒马河等河流为“优秀”。
 
  从湖泊来看,66.7%的城市重点湖泊水生态环境质量状况为“良好”,其中,昆明湖、圆明园湖、玉渊潭湖等均达到了“良好”。
 
  从水库来看,监测的18座大中型水库均为“优秀”或“良好”,其中,密云水库、怀柔水库、黄松峪水库、斋堂水库水生态环境质量达到“优秀”。
 
  在监测中我们发现,马口鱼、黑鳍鳈等常在山区清洁水体中活动的鱼类,近年种群数量和分布范围明显扩大,在平原区城市河段也有发现,也说明了近年来水生态环境质量改善的成效。典型河段如新凤河、凉水河等城市河段通过再生水循环利用、河道生态修复,河流水生态环境质量恢复到了“良好”水平。
 
  下一步,责任部门将按照打好碧水保卫战要求,继续做好水生态环境质量监测与评价,掌握水生态环境质量长期变化趋势,增强三水统筹的技术支撑能力,推动流域水生态环境质量的系统保护。
 
  原标题:北京市水生态环境质量监测与评价工作介绍

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