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2021技术进步奖 | 高速铁路噪声测量、预测方法以及控制关键技术及应用

2022-08-16 10:14:35来源:中国环保产业协会 阅读量:14109

导读:高速铁路噪声测量、预测方法以及控制关键技术及应用项目从噪声源识别-预测-评价-控制等四个层次建立了高速铁路噪声控制完整研究体系。
  在16位院士、30多家提名机构和100余位提名和评审专家的大力支持下,2021年“环境技术进步奖”圆满完成,31个项目获得一等奖和二等奖。
 
  据不完全统计,2021年的获奖成果包括国际专利15项、发明专利471项、实用新型专利等其他知识产权550项;2018-2020年,相关产值高达500亿元,实现利润100亿元,充分体现了我国环境技术创新跑出的加速度。
 
  我会将陆续发布获奖项目简介,供社会各界人士参考。
 
  (注:所有发布材料均由获奖单位提供。)
 
  项目简介
 
  随着我国高速铁路路网密集化及列车高速化,噪声问题已成为制约高速铁路提速、“走出去”及绿色交通发展的重要因素,而强气动激扰、多噪声源作用下实现高速铁路噪声有效控制是公认的技术难题。
 
  本项目从噪声源识别-预测-评价-控制等四个层次建立了高速铁路噪声控制完整研究体系,取得如下创新性研究成果:(1)研发基于去多普勒效应算法和解卷积算法的高速铁路运动声源识别技术,低频识别下限拓宽为200Hz,空间分辨率提升10倍以上,识别动态范围提升至10~15dB,满足高速铁路噪声宽频以及多运动声源特性分析的实际需求,大幅提升了识别精度,已全面应用于多项高速铁路重大综合试验;(2)基于声学波动理论、运动声源理论以及声源指向性研究成果,研究构建多声源等效理论模型,解决声源高速运动引起的计算结果偏差;(3)针对高速列车速度快、通过时间短、噪声强度大、噪声受轮轨状态影响大等特点,研发了对列车通过声信号捕捉能力强、精准定位快、自动化程度高并实现全寿命周期跟踪测量的集轮轨状态-噪声同步检测多功能远程实时监测系统;(4)提出350km/h以上声屏障气动荷载设计曲线,基于高速铁路多声源特征,从高速铁路声屏障高度、吸声结构以及声屏障截面形式等方面提出多种声屏障优化设计方法,为声屏障结构力学和声学设计奠定技术基础。
 
  项目研究成果为《中华人民共和国环境噪声污染防治法》《环境影响评价技术导则 声环境》《环境影响评价技术导则 城市轨道交通》等国家相关法律规范制修订提供了技术支撑。科技成果鉴定结论为总体成果达到国际先进水平,部分创新成果达到国际领先水平。
 
  项目成果已用于复兴号高速动车组整车降噪设计以及高速铁路声屏障气动效应与声学设计;高速铁路噪声预测及评价方法已转化为行业技术标准,指导高速铁路声环境影响预测、评价及控制。
 
  获奖感言:
 
  刘兰华 中国铁道科学研究院集团有限公司   研究员
 
  噪声问题是发展高速铁路面临的最重要、最关键环境影响问题。本项目结合我国高速铁路噪声控制需求与实践,针对高速铁路噪声源识别、测试方法与控制目标、预测模型建立及参数确定、声屏障控制技术等方面存在的难题,提出符合我国高速铁路特点的噪声源识别、声环境影响预测评价方法及控制技术,项目成果已直接用于国家及行业标准制定部门、高速铁路设计与环境影响评价单位以及高速动车组制造商等,为高速铁路噪声控制提供了强有力的技术支撑,也为后续推动“CR450科技创新工程”实施、推进更高速度高速铁路发展奠定了坚实的技术基础。
 
  结语
 
  为鼓励技术创新,建立以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研用相结合的环境技术创新体系,经国家科学技术奖励工作办公室备案(社会科技奖励编号0299号),中国环境保护产业协会于2018年设立了面向全国、面向产业的“环境技术进步奖”。该奖项聚焦环境应用技术成果,不授予环境学科基础研究、环境管理研究等软科学成果。
 
  欢迎各界环保人士,积极参与2022年度环境技术进步奖相关工作。(注:原文有删改)
 
  原标题:2021技术进步奖 | 高速铁路噪声测量、预测方法以及控制关键技术及应用——中国铁道科学研究院集团有限公司等

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